The Chambers have a judicial function and, being attached to each level of the court system in Kosovo, mirror the judicial structure in Kosovo. The Chambers are composed of international judges.
The Chambers shall be composed of the following Panels: individual judges performing the functions of a Pre-Trial Judge; Trial Panels composed of three judges (and one reserve Judge); Court of Appeals Panels composed of three judges; Supreme Court Panels composed of three judges; Constitutional Court Panels composed of three judges; and other individual judges as necessary to perform the functions of the Specialist Chambers.
Judges are appointed by the Head of the EU Common Security and Defence Policy Mission (i.e. Head of EULEX Mission), as recommended by an independent Selection Panel, which consists of two international judges with substantial experience in international criminal law and a third international appointee. The President and the Vice-President are appointed upon the recommendation of the independent Selection Panel. Judges are appointed to a Roster of International Judges. The President will assign judges from the roster to a case when required.
According to the Law, the Judges shall be persons of high moral character, impartial and of integrity, and shall qualify for the highest judicial offices in their respective States. They are independent in the performance of their functions and shall not accept or seek instructions from any government or any other source. They have established competence in criminal law and procedure, international law and constitutional law as appropriate, with extensive judicial, prosecutorial or defence experience in international or domestic criminal proceedings.
The Judges appointed to the Roster of International Judges are:
Judge Charles L. Smith, III (United States of America) has been working as mediator and arbitrator since 2014. He previously served as EULEX Judge from 2010 through 2013. As part of this mandate, he was a member of the Supreme Court of Kosovo between 2011 and 2013, and was elected Vice-President and President of the Assembly of EULEX Judges for 2011-2012, and 2013, respectively. Prior to this, in 1990, he was appointed District Court Judge in the Fourth Judicial District of the State of Iowa, where from 1996 through 2010, he served as Chief Judge and as member of the Iowa State Judicial Council. Between 1970 and 1989, he operated a private practice of law, specialised in civil and criminal litigation, as well as business, taxation and probate law. Judge Smith, III holds a J.D from Creighton University (United States of America) received in 1970. He was called to the Nebraska State Bar in June 1970 and the Iowa State Bar in June 1971.
Judge Christine van den Wyngaert (Belgium) served as a Judge of the International Criminal Court (ICC) from 2009 to 2018. On 17 September 2021, Judge van den Wyngaert was appointed to serve as one of the Special Advisors to the Prosecutor of the ICC. She previously served as Judge with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia between 2003 and 2009, and as ad hoc Judge at the International Court of Justice between 2000 and 2002. Prior to this, between 1991 and 1998, she was the Vice Chair of the Criminal Procedure Reform Commission in Belgium (Commission Franchimont). She further served as an expert for the European Union in various criminal law projects. Between 1985 and 2005, she held a chair as professor at the University of Antwerp. She was a visiting fellow at the Lauterpacht Centre (University of Cambridge) and, since 2001, an honorary Professor at the University of Stellenbosch. Judge van den Wyngaert holds a law degree from Brussels University (Belgium), and obtained her PhD in International Criminal Law from Brussels University. She received five honorary doctorates - Uppsala (Sweden), Brussels, Case Western Reserve (US), Maastricht and the University of Stellenbosch (South Africa). She has published extensively in the field of criminal law, criminal procedure, comparative criminal law and international criminal law. In 2019, the International Association of Penal Law awarded her the Jescheck Prize for her lifetime contributions to international criminal justice and she received the prestigious Vespasian V. Pella medal, which is handed to a new recipient only every decade.
Judge Michèle Picard (France) has been serving as Judge at the Appeals Court of Paris since June 2013. She previously served as Judge at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia from 2008 through 2013. Prior to that, between 2007 and 2008, she was appointed as a member of the Human Rights Advisory Panel in Kosovo, and from 1996 to 2003 she presided over the Human Rights Chamber for Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 2005, she was appointed as an independent expert on the Human Rights Situation in Uzbekistan. She also worked for the Council of Europe as an expert on compatibility exercises in Macedonia, Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Judge Thomas Laker (Germany) served as Presiding Judge at the Administrative Law Court in Hamburg (Germany) from 2005 to 2020. Prior to this, he was seconded to the Department of Justice of Hamburg (1992-1996), to the Administrative Court of Appeal of Hamburg (1999-2000) and to the Social Law Court of Hamburg (2005). He was appointed among the first Judges of the United Nations Dispute Tribunal, where he served two terms as President (2010-2011; 2013-2014). He also served as Chairperson of the Joint Appeals Board of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (2011 to 2020). Currently, he serves as Judge on several administrative tribunals of international organisations and agencies, including the Council of Europe (since 2021), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (since 2020), United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (since 2019) and as chairperson of the Panel of Adjudicators of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (since 2016).
Judge Emilio Gatti (Italy) has been serving as Public Prosecutor at the District Court Level in Genoa since 2010. He previously served as a Criminal Judge in the Genoa district from 2001 until 2008 and as a Criminal Judge first and as a Public Prosecutor later at the District Court of Savona between 1985 and 2001. From 2008 through 2010, he served in the Kosovo EULEX Mission as a Criminal Judge.
Judge Vidar Stensland (Norway) has been serving as Court of Appeals Judge at Haalogaland Court of Appeals in Tromsø since 2001. He previously served as EULEX Judge from 2013 through 2016, where he was assigned to the Mitrovica Basic Court. Prior to that, he was a Legal Advisor and later Head of Mission at the Norwegian Mission of Rule of Law Advisors to Georgia between 2007 and 2009. Prior to that, between 2004 and 2009, he was a member of the Criminal Cases Review Commission in Norway. From 2000 until 2001, he operated a private practice as Attorney-at-Law. Between 1985 and 1999, he held various positions in the Norwegian Prosecution Service as Head of the Prosecution Department/Deputy Chief of Police, Senior Public Prosecutor in northern Norway and at The Norwegian National Authority for Investigation and Prosecution of Economic and Environmental Crime. He has lectured on criminal law and procedure, including international human rights law, at different universities in Norway and abroad.
Judge Roland Dekkers (Netherlands) has been serving as Senior Judge at the Court of Appeal of 's-Hertogenbosch since 2017. From 2008 to 2017 he served as Senior Judge (Vice-President) at the Court of Appeal of The Hague, where he was Head of the Division for International Crimes. From 2005 through 2008, Judge Dekkers served as International Judge at the War Crimes Chamber of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo). Prior to that he was assigned as Judge to the Criminal Divisions of the Court of Appeal of Amsterdam (2002-2008), the District Court of Roermond (2001-2002) and he was appointed as a Judge of the Joint Court of Justice of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba (1997-2001). Between 1992 and 1997, he was assigned to the District Court of The Hague, first as senior legal officer, and later as Judge. Previously, he worked as Company lawyer and as a junior researcher in Civil Law at Utrecht University.
Judge Dekkers has been a guest lecturer in International Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure at several universities in the Netherlands. He was also a member of the Advisory Board of the Faculty of Law of Maastricht University and a Member of the Roster of Experts of the UN Security Council Affairs. Judge Dekkers studied law at the universities of Utrecht and Maastricht (Netherlands). He holds a law degree from Maastricht University.
Judge Michael Bohlander (Germany) served as the International Co-investigating Judge in the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia from 2015-2019; he was re-instated by the UN Secretary-General on 22 April 2020. He has held the Chair in Comparative and International Criminal Law at Durham University since 2004. Between 2010 and 2014, Judge Bohlander held the Visiting Chair in Criminal Law at Groningen University (Netherlands), and taught at Al-Azhar University (Egypt) as a visiting scholar in 2012. Since 2001, he has been involved in judicial training, inter alia of the Judges of the Iraqi High Tribunal, and in advising governments. Between 1991 and 2004, he was a Judge in criminal and civil matters in Thuringia (Germany). In 1996, he was a judicial visitor at a Juzgado de Primera Instancia e Instrucción (Spain). From 1999 until 2001 he served as the Senior Legal Officer of a Trial Chamber at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. Judge Bohlander holds a law degree and a Dr. iur. from Saarland University (Germany). He has published extensively in the field of international and comparative criminal law.
Judge Antonio Balsamo (Italy) was appointed President of the Court of Palermo in July 2021. He further served as Professor of Criminal law at the Faculty of Law of the LUMSA in Palermo. He previously served as President of the Court of Assize of Caltanissetta from 2011 to 2018, and as Deputy Prosecutor General of the Italian Supreme Court of Cassation from 2016 to 2018. Prior to this, Judge Balsamo was Judge seconded to the Italian Supreme Court of Cassation from 2007 to 2011 and Judge of the Court of Palermo from 1992 to 2007. He also served as Presiding Member of the Human Rights Review Panel of EULEX in Kosovo from May 2010 to May 2012. Judge Balsamo participated as an expert and consultant in EU projects concerning the reform of the Criminal Code of Bulgaria, the establishment of a Public Prosecutors Office to deal with organized crime and corruption in the FYROM, and human trafficking in Turkey. He was a member of several Italian judicial committees and boards. Judge Balsamo holds a law degree from the University of Palermo (Italy), and received his specialization Diploma in Regional and Local Government Law from the University of Palermo. He was appointed as a trainee Judge in 1991. He has published extensively on various topics related to criminal law and the protection of human rights at both the national and international level.
Judge Kai Ambos (Germany) has been serving as the Head of the Department of Foreign and International Criminal Law and Chair of Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure, Comparative Law and International Criminal Law at the University of Göttingen (Germany) since May 2003. He was appointed Director of the Centro de Estudios de Derecho Penal y Procesal Penal Latinoamericano (CEDPAL) of the University of Göttingen in 2013. He also served as Defence Counsel and consultant at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Court. Since March 2006, Judge Ambos has been serving as a part-time Judge at the Provincial Court of Lower Saxony in Göttingen, from where he was delegated to the Appeals Court Braunschweig for 2015. Judge Ambos studied law and political science at the universities of Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany), Oxford (UK) and Munich (Germany). He passed his first State Examination in 1990 and his second State Examination, enabling him to practice law, in 1994. Judge Ambos obtained his PhD in 1992 and his habilitation in 2001 (both at the University of München). He has published extensively in the field of criminal law and procedure, comparative law and international criminal law.
Judge Kenneth Roberts (Canada) has been serving as Senior Legal Officer with the International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism (Syria) since 2018. He previously served as Senior Legal Officer with the Trial Chamber of the Extraordinary Chambers of the Courts of Cambodia (2013-2018), Deputy Registrar (2009-2012), Senior Legal Officer (2005-2009; 2012-2013), Legal Officer (2000-2005) and Associate Legal Officer (1998-2000) with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. In 2002, he worked as Chief of the Legal Policy Unit of the Department of Justice of the UN Mission in Kosovo. Prior to that, between 1995 and 1997, he worked as Associate Professional Officer with the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Judge Roberts holds a degree in International Relations from the University of Toronto (Canada), a law degree from Western University (Canada), and an LLM in Public International Law from London School of Economics and Political Science (UK). He was called to the Ontario (Canada) Bar in 1997.
Judge Mappie Veldt-Foglia (Netherlands) has been serving as Judge at the Court of Appeal of The Hague since 2010, where she is a member of the Human Trafficking and International Crimes Chambers. Prior to that, since 2006, she served as Judge at the Court of First Instance of The Hague on matters of (international) criminal law and extradition. Previously, from 1997 to 2005, she worked at the criminal law department of the Scientific Bureau of the Dutch Supreme Court. While working there, she was also assigned to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as substitute agent before the European Court of Human Rights in 2001. She taught criminal law, criminal procedure and European criminal law at Tilburg University and the Erasmus University in Rotterdam (Netherlands). Judge Veldt-Foglia holds a law degree from Tilburg University and a postgraduate degree in European law from Université libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). She obtained her PhD in Human Rights and Criminal Procedure from Tilburg University. She has published widely in the field of criminal law and procedure, as well as European criminal law and she has lectured on European law, human trafficking and criminal (procedural) law.
Judge Christoph Barthe (Germany) has been serving as Public Prosecutor at the German Federal Court of Justice since 2010, where he specializes in the prosecution of war crimes and genocide. Prior to that, from 2009 to 2010, he served as Public Prosecutor in Munich, dealing with cases of environmental and general criminal law. He was appointed as Judge at a local court of Rosenheim (Germany) (2008-2009), where he performed the functions of investigating and trial Judge, and as Public Prosecutor in Traunstein (2005-2007). Prior to that, between 2004 and 2005, he worked as a post-graduate research assistant at the University of Göttingen (Germany). Prior to that, he worked as a Judge at the District Court of Bonn (2002-2003), and as an attorney-at-law (2001-2002).
Judge Barthe studied law at the University of Bonn and the University of Leiden (Netherlands). He holds a law degree from Bonn University (Germany), and obtained his PhD in International Criminal Law from the University of Göttingen. He is also part-time lecturer in criminal law, criminal procedure, international criminal law and international humanitarian law, inter alia, at the European Judicial Training Network (EJTN) and the German Judicial Academy and has published widely in the field of international and domestic criminal law.
Judge Vladimir Mikula (Czech Republic) has been serving as a EULEX Judge since 2011. He has also been serving as Judge in the Northern Bohemia region of the Czech Republic since 2007. Prior to that, he worked as lawyer advising financial institutions in Prague.
Judge Guénaël Mettraux (Switzerland) has been advising States and NGOs in the context of proceedings before the International Criminal Court and in relation to the investigation and prosecution of international crimes. Judge Mettraux has served as Defence Counsel and consultant in high-profile war crimes and terrorism cases before the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia and the International Criminal Court. Judge Mettraux is a Panel Member of EULEX’s Human Rights Review Panel. He is also an Affiliate Professor of International Criminal Law Practice at Dickinson Law School, PennState University, Professor of law at Science Po Paris, a guest lecturer at the University of Fribourg (Switzerland) and Professor of International Criminal Law and Procedure at the University of Amsterdam.
Judge Mettraux holds a law degree from the University of Lausanne (Switzerland), an LLM in International Law (University College London) and a PhD degree (London School of Economics and Political Science). He has published extensively in the field of international criminal law.
Judge Nicolas Guillou (France) served as the Chef de Cabinet to the President of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon (2015-2019). Previously, from 2012 onwards, he was appointed France’s Liaison Prosecutor at the US Department of Justice, where he facilitated judicial cooperation between the two countries in criminal and civil matters, especially in counterterrorism, foreign corrupt practices and cybercrime. Between 2006 and 2012, Judge Guillou held several positions in the French Ministry of Justice, as Deputy Head of the Commercial Law Section, as Adviser on Criminal Affairs and as Adviser on Diplomatic Affairs. Prior to that, from 2003 through 2006, Judge Guillou served as an Investigative Judge in the Court of Meaux, near Paris, where he handled a variety of criminal cases, such as murders, organized crime and financial crimes. Judge Guillou holds a Masters degree in International and European Criminal Law from Sorbonne University (France).
Judge Roumen H. Nenkov (Bulgaria) served as a Judge on the Constitutional Court of Bulgaria from 2009 to 2018. Prior to that, he served as a Judge on the Supreme Court of Cassation (1992-2009), acted as Deputy Chairperson of the Court and Head of its Criminal College. His judicial career began as a junior Judge on the Sofia City Court (1980-1983) and continued as a Judge on the Sofia Regional Court (1984-1989) and as a senior Judge and Deputy Chairperson on the Sofia City Court (1991-1992). In 1990, Judge Nenkov acted as Secretary-General at the Ministry of Justice of Bulgaria. Judge Nenkov holds a law degree from the University of Sofia. He is a member of the Association of the Bulgarian Scientists and has published widely in the field of constitutional law, criminal law, criminal procedure and international protection of human rights. As an expert, he was involved in EU projects related to the judicial reform in the countries of the Western Balkans and in UN training project for criminal judges of Kazakhstan.
Judge Gilbert Bitti (France) has been serving as a Senior Legal Adviser at the International Criminal Court (ICC) Pre-Trial Division (2005-present). He further acted as Chief of the Victims Participation and Reparations Section of the ICC (2003) and as Deputy to the Chief of the Legal Advisory Section in the Office of the Prosecutor of the ICC (2004-2005). He was counsel for the French Government before the European Court for Human Rights (1993- 2001) and was a member of the French delegation during the negotiations of the Rome Statute and the ICC Rules of Procedure and Evidence. From 1991 to 1993, Judge Bitti was an Assistant Professor at the University of Paris II (Pantheon-Assas, France). Judge Bitti continues to teach at a number of universities in France (Lille and Paris) and Spain (Barcelona). Judge Bitti has published extensively in the areas of international criminal and human rights law in English, French and Spanish. Judge Bitti is a member of the Advisory Board for the Center for International Law and Policy (CILRAP). Judge Bitti holds law degrees (Master in Law with specialisation in judicial careers and DEA – diplôme d’études approfondies - in Criminal Law) from the University of Paris II (Pantheon-Assas, France).
Judge Daniel Fransen (Belgium) has been serving as a Judge at the Special Tribunal for Lebanon since 2009. Before that, he served as an investigative Judge at the Tribunal of First Instance in Brussels (1998 to 2009), working on, inter alia, terrorism cases, serious violations of international humanitarian law and gross human rights violations. Prior thereto, Judge Fransen worked as a defence counsel and as a lawyer in the public service from 1989 to 1995. Judge Fransen holds a law degree of the Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium) and was a member of the Brussels Bar.
Judge Romina Incutti (Italy)has been serving as a Judge at the Surveillance Court of Rome since 2018. She further served as a Legal Advisor of the Italian Embassy in Washington DC (2016-2018), as Legal Advisor of the Office of the Agent of the Italian Government before the European Court of Human Rights, as a Legal Advisor of the Service for Legal Affairs, Diplomatic Disputes and International Agreements (2012-2016), and as a Magistrate Advisor at the General Directorate of Criminal Justice in the Italian Ministry of Justice (2010-2012). Prior to that, Judge Incutti served as a Judge at the Criminal Court in Rome (1996-1997 and 2000-2010) and as a Public Prosecutor in Sicily (1997-2000).
Judge Fergal M. Gaynor (Ireland) serves as the Reserve International Co-Prosecutor at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) and represents victims at the International Criminal Court. He also served as a Senior Assistant Prosecutor at the ECCC from 2015 to 2016 and as counsel for the prosecution at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia between 2001 and 2013. Judge Gaynor holds a Bachelor of Laws from Trinity College Dublin (Ireland) and a Master of Philosophy from Cambridge University (UK). He is a member of the Bar of Ireland.
Judge Nina H.B. Jørgensen (Norway) has been Professor of Public International Law at the University of Southampton since 2019 and served as Deputy Head of the Law School (research) from 2019 to 2021. She was previously Professor of Law (2014-2018) and Associate Professor of Law (2010-2014) at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. From 2001 to 2010, she worked in various capacities at the Special Court for Sierra Leone, including as Senior Appeals Counsel and Senior Legal Adviser for the Office of the Prosecutor, as well as at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, and the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. She has also worked for the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights in Warsaw as the Legal Adviser for Tolerance and Non-Discrimination. She has further advised the United Nations and non-governmental organisations on matters relating to international criminal justice. Judge Jørgensen has a D.Phil. (doctorate) from the University of Oxford and a law degree from the University of Bristol (UK). She was called to the Bar of England and Wales (Gray’s Inn) in 1999 and has a practising certificate as a barrister. She has published widely in the field of international criminal law and procedure.
Judge Ann Power-Forde (Ireland)
Judge Andres Parmas (Estonia)
Judge Keith Raynor (UK)