The Chambers have a judicial function and, being attached to each level of the court system in Kosovo, mirror the judicial structure in Kosovo. The Chambers are composed of international judges.

The Chambers will be composed of the following Panels: individual judges performing the functions of a Pre-Trial Judge; a Trial Panel composed of three judges (and one reserve Judge); a Court of Appeals Panel composed of three judges; a Supreme Court Panel composed of three judges; a Constitutional Court Panel composed of three judges (and one reserve Judge); and other judges that are necessary to perform the functions of the Specialist Chambers.

Judges are appointed by the Head of the EU Common Security and Defence Policy Mission (i.e. Head of EULEX Mission), as recommended by an independent Selection Panel, consisting of two international judges with substantial experience in international criminal law and a third international appointee. The President and the Vice-President are appointed upon recommendation of the independent Selection Panel. Judges are appointed to a Roster of International Judges. The President will assign judges from the roster to a case when required

According to the Law, the Judges shall be persons of high moral character, impartial and of integrity, and qualify for the highest judicial offices in their respective States. They are independent in the performance of their functions and shall not accept or seek instructions from any government or any other source. They have established competence in criminal law and procedure, international law and constitutional law as appropriate, with extensive judicial, prosecutorial or defence experience in international or domestic criminal proceedings.

The Judges appointed to the Roster of International Judges are:

1. Keith Raynor (Vice-President), United Kingdom

2. Roland Dekkers (Specialist Chamber of the Constitutional Court), Netherlands

3. Anne Power-Forde (Specialist Chamber of the Constitutional Court), Ireland

4. Vidar Stensland (Specialist Chamber of the Constitutional Court), Norway

5. Antonio Balsamo (Specialist Chamber of the Constitutional Court, Reserve Judge), Italy

6. Kai Ambos, Germany

7. Christoph Barthe, Germany

8. Michael Bohlander, Germany

9. Emilio Gatti, Italy

10. Nicolas Guillou, France

11. Thomas Laker, Germany

12. Guénaël Mettraux, Switzerland

13. Vladimir Mikula, Czech Republic

14. Andres Parmas, Estonia

15. Michèle Picard, France

16. Kenneth Roberts, Canada

17. Charles Smith III, United States of America

18. Mappie Veldt-Foglia, Netherlands

19. Christine van der Wyngaert, Belgium